Orange oil is extracted by simple pressure from the outer coloured part of the Citrus sinensis' peel. Oranges are widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates for the sweet fruit and commercially for essential oil extraction. Other origins for Orange oil include Brazil, South Africa & Spain.
Orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry. Oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit, after juice extraction and is widely used across the flavour and fragrance industry. Sweet orange (citrus sinensis) is around 90% d’limonene, a product used across many more industries. Approximately 40% of global oranges are processed for juice and oil with 60% solely used as a fresh fruit for consumption.
Bearing acreage of orange in the USA is a particular worry as year on year the output has been declining. In the past 10 years it has fallen from around 770 thousand acres to 600 thousand acres today. Below are Florida's recent fresh fruit outputs, courtesy of the USDA, showing the significance of the decline.
|TYPE / SEASON||2011/12||2012/13||2013/14||2014/15||2015/16*|
|Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||72,500||66,500||51,300||49,400||33,000|
|Non-Valencia Type (1,000 boxes)||74,200||67,100||53,300||39,500||36,000|
*2015/16 data forecasted by USDA at 9th February 2016
The USDA forecast released in February estimated the Florida crop to be 45.0 million boxes, some 2% down on its January estimate. This is 35% less than last season’s final production of 69 million boxes and dramatically down from the peak of 244 million boxes in 1998. The total includes 19.0 million boxes of non-Valencia oranges (early, midseason, Navel, and Temple varieties) and 26.0 million boxes of Valencia. A further decrease had been expected because of the recent freezes in Florida during the week of 14 January, 2018.
This year’s citrus crop will be the lowest production in more than 75 years for Florida and the industry remains in crisis. Prior to hurricane Irma which moved through the middle of the state on 10 September, 2017, Florida had seen a turnaround and was expecting a better crop than last at about 75 million boxes, which would have been the first upward trend in production in many years since greening (HLB) destroyed a large percentage of orange trees.
Orange EU: Orange forecast is expected to be at 6.2 million MT, which is a 7.7% decrease as compared to the last crop. Orange Mexico: Orange forecast is expected to be about 4.6 million MT, which is about the same as last crop and about 1.7 million MT is expected to be processed. Orange South Africa: The production of oranges for the 2017/2018 crop is expected to increase by 2.0% to 1.43 million MT as compared to last crop and an estimated 13% of the crop will go to the industry for processing.
Even though Florida is the largest orange producing state in America and the third largest orange producer in the world (after Brazil and China) and 95% of the fruit is processed for juice, leaving very little for fresh fruit consumption.
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